+ 1.1. Short acquaintance to the car
+ 2. Engines A3E, A5D
+ 3. Greasing system
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Fuel system
+ 6. Ignition system
+ 7. Coupling
+ 8. Transmission
+ 9. Axes and power shafts
+ 10. Suspension bracket
+ 11. Wheels and tires
+ 12. Steering
+ 13. Brake system
+ 14. Body
+ 15. Air central air
- 16. Electric equipment
16.2. Electric chains
+ 16.3. Generator
+ 16.4. Storage battery
16.6. Check at a provorachivaniye of a cranked shaft not the heated-up engine
16.7. Check of an electric chain of the traction relay
16.8. Check of the traction relay
16.9. Check of brushes and shchetkoderzhatel
16.10. Check of coils of a stator
16.11. Rotor check
16.12. Removal and starter installation
16.13. Starter repair
16.14. Multipurpose switch
16.15. Sound signal
16.16. The block of safety locks and the relay, established in car salon
16.17. Check of the relay of the activator of the lock of a door
16.18. Check of the switch of adjustment of provision of an external rear-view mirror
16.19. Check of the activator of provision of an external rear-view mirror
16.20. Check of the engine of a window regulator
16.21. Check of a heater of back glass
16.22. Repair of a current-carrying strip of a heater
16.23. Engine of a screen wiper of a windscreen
16.25. Adjustment of light of headlights
16.26. Adjustment of light of fog lights
16.27. Safety cushions (SRS)
16.28. Precautionary labels
16.29. Safety cushion of the driver and spiral wire
16.30. Safety cushion check
16.31. Check of a spiral wire (spring)
16.32. Safety cushion of the forward passenger
+ 16.33. Electric circuits
The usual electric chain consists of elements of the electric equipment, switches, the relay, engines, safety locks, fusible inserts and wires and sockets which connect all elements among themselves, the storage battery and "mass" of the car.
The cause of defect can be found much quicker if to define, what of elements of this chain work normally.
If some elements or chains fail at once, the problem, possibly, consists in the fused safety lock or bad grounding as often one safety lock protects some chains.
Problems with work of system of electric equipment are usually caused by the simple reasons, such as the oxidized or unreliable contacts, the fused safety lock, the fused fusible insert or the faulty relay.
Visually check a condition of all safety locks, wires and sockets in a faulty chain before the beginning of check of other elements of this chain.
The main devices necessary for failure detection in a chain are:
– a tester or the voltmeter (or a bulb on 12 In with connecting wires);
– a control bulb with the power supply (or the device for check of integrity of chains);
– an ohmmeter (for resistance measurement);
– storage battery;
– щупы with wires;
– a cap wire, it is desirable with the automatic switch or a safety lock which can be used for check of wires or elements of the electric equipment.
For detection of unreliable connection or a place of short circuit (usually because of the bad or polluted connection or the damaged isolation) it is possible to shake wires by a hand to see, whether there is a chain out of operation at wire movement.
Such way it is possible to find a point with the unreliable socket or a point in which there is a short circuit.
Besides the problems connected with unreliable connection, the electric chain can have two other main malfunctions – break existence in a chain or short circuit.
Break in a chain can be caused by a rupture of any wire or absence of connection in a chain that will prevent a current current.
Break in a chain will cause refusal of any element of the electric equipment in work, but will not lead to a safety lock peregoraniye protecting this chain.
The malfunctions connected with short circuit, are caused by short circuit in a chain that leads to that the current flowing on a chains, begins a leak on other chain and more often leaves on "weight". Short circuit is usually caused by a rupture of isolation that allows a feeding wire to concern either other wire, or the earthed element, such, as a body.
Short circuit leads to a peregoraniye of the safety lock protecting the corresponding chain.
Before search of a source of malfunction or at carrying out repair in system of the electric equipment, keep in mind that various types of wires have various color.
For detection of a rupture of a chain connect one of щупов a control bulb to the negative plug of the accumulator or "mass" of the car.
Connect the second щуп to connection in a checked chain, it is desirable located as it is possible closer to the storage battery or a safety lock.
Submit tension on a chain. Do not forget that in some chains tension moves only at key turn in the ignition lock in a certain situation.
If tension is present (about what the lit-up control bulb will testify or voltmeter indications), it means that the part of a chain between connection and the storage battery is serviceable.
Continue check of other part of a chain in the same way.
When the point where tension is absent will be found, it means that the source of malfunction lies between this point and the previous point where tension was present. The majority of problems is caused by bad connection.
The negative plug of the storage battery is connected to "mass" of the car – to metal of an engine / transmission and a car body – and the majority of systems of the electric equipment are developed so that only one feeding wire approached to an element of the equipment, and the current came back through metal of a body of the car.
It means that fastening of an element of electric equipment and a body of the car are a part of an electric chain.
Therefore, the bad or oxidized fastening can be at the bottom of a large number of malfunctions in system of the electric equipment, from a full exit of a chain out of operation before its unreliable work. In particular, bulbs can dimly burn (especially if other chain using the same point of grounding) is included, engines (for example, engines of screen wipers or the radiator fan) can slowly work and inclusion of any chain can influence work of other chain.
Notice that on many cars connecting earthing strips between various units of the car are used, for example, between an engine / transmission and a body, i.e. usually when between elements there is no metal contact because of use of rubber fastenings etc.
For check of reliability of grounding disconnect the storage battery and connect one of щупов an ohmmeter to "mass" of the car.
Connect the second щуп to a wire or a point of grounding which is necessary for checking. The resistance registered by an ohmmeter, should equal to zero: otherwise, check connection as follows.
If you consider that connection not as it should be, disassemble connection and smooth out to pure metal a contact surface and the plug of a wire or a surface of an earthed element. Remove completely dirt and corrosion traces, then, by means of a knife remove a paint coat to receive reliable compound of metal with metal.
At assembly reliably fix connection; at installation of the plug of a wire use gear washers between the plug and a body.
After connection for prevention of formation of corrosion put on connection a layer of vaseline or silicone greasing.